What is Hashing?
Hashing is technique of converting an object into an integer value. For example hashcode() method always return int value. We can also override hashcode() method and implement own logic to get hashcode value.
Note : The integer value helps in indexing and faster searches.
What is HashMap
HashMap is a one type of collection in Java collection framework to store values in key and value pair. HashMap uses hashing technique for storing values. HashMap uses internal data structure as array and LinkedList for storing key and values. HashMap contains an array of nodes, and node presented by a class with respect to key.
See Also : Java: HashMap Class Methods and Examples
Contract between equals() and hashcode() method
Before discussing internal working of HashMap, need to understand hashCode() and equals() method contract in detail.
- equals(): it’s Object class method to check the equality of two objects by comparing key, whether they are equal or not. It can be overridden.
- hashCode(): it’s also object class methods which return memory reference of object in integer form. This value received from the hashcode() method is used as the bucket number or address of element inside Map. Hashcode value of null Key is 0.
If you override the equals() method, then it is mandatory to override the hashCod() method.
See Also: Java : java.lang.Object Class & Methods
Buckets: is an Array of the node, where each node has a data structure like a LinkedList. More than one node can use same bucket and may be different in capacity.
Working of HashMap
Insert Key, Value pair in HashMap
We use put() method to insert the Key and Value pair in the HashMap. The default capacity of HashMap is 16 (0 to 15).
Example: In the following example, we want to insert six (Key, Value) pair in the HashMap.
HashMap<String, Integer> map = new HashMap<>(); map.put("Ankur", 35); map.put("Saurabh", 36); map.put("Gaurav", 32); map.put("Raghav", 29); map.put("Rajendra", 40); map.put("Shailesh", 33);
When we call the put() method, then it calculates the hash code of the Key i.e “Ankur” hashcode is 63412443. Now to store the Key and value pair in memory, we have to calculate the index based on below formulae.
Calculating Index Formulae:
Index = hashcode(Key) & (n-1) Where n is the size of the array.
Hence the index value for Ankur and others are as below:
Calculate Index for “Ankur”
Index = 63412443& (16-1) = 11
Calculate Index for “Saurabh”
Index = -758033668& (16-1) = 12
Calculate Index for “Gaurav”
Index = 2125849484& (16-1) = 12
Calculate Index for “Raghav”
Index = -1854623835& (16-1) = 5
Calculate Index for “Rajendra”
Index = 201412911& (16-1) = 15
Calculate Index for “Shailesh”
Index = -687212437& (16-1) = 11
The key “Ankur” calculated index value is 11. This key and value pair store in one of the node of HashMap.
Hash Collisions occured when two or more keys are calculating index as same value.
From above calculated index value, keys “Ankur and “Shailesh” both index value is 11 having hash collision. Similarly for “Saurabh” and “Gaurav” having index value 12. In this case, equals() method compare both Keys are equal or not. If Keys are equal, replace the value with the current value. Otherwise, linked this node object (key and value pair) to the existing node object through the LinkedList.
Similarly, we will store the other keys with respect to below index positions.
HashMap get() method to retrieve values
HashMap get(Key) method is used to retrieve value by Key. This method calculate index position based on key hashcode value and capacity of hashmap and fetch result. If no matching key find out will return result as value null.
Suppose we have to fetch the Key “Ankur.” The following method will be called.
It generates the hash code as 63412443. Now calculate the index value of 63412443 by using index formula. The index value will be 11. get() method search for the index value 11. It compares the given key value sequentially in bucket with respect to index position 11. If any equal key find out in bucket will return value object with respect to that key otherwise finally return null if not no match find out.
Let’s fetch another Key “Raghav.” The hash code of the Key “Raghav” is -1854623835. The calculated index value of -1854623835 is 5. Go to index 5 of the array and compare the first element’s Key with the given Key “Raghav”. It return the value object for match key.